The fuel cell has easily obtained raw materials, high energy density, long service life, cleaning and other advantages, as a new energy efficient conversion system.
As a new type of solid lubricating material, tungsten disulfide has excellent lubricity and environmental strain ability. It is a high-end precision industrial lubricating material.
Tungsten trioxide (WO3) is a product of tungstate or calcining ammonium paratungstate, is an important intermediate compound of high purity tungsten.
The reason why semiconductor memory chooses nano tungsten oxide material to produce storage media is that it is a very important semiconductor material with good electrochemical performance, and its resistance value can undergo reversible transformation under the action of an electric field. Next, let's take a look at the manufacturing method of a storage device based on a tungsten oxide storage element.
Manufacturing method (1)
The storage device includes a plug that extends upward from the top surface of the substrate through a dielectric layer. A bottom electrode, the outer surface of the bottom electrode has tungsten, the bottom electrode extends upward from the top surface of the plug. An insulating material, the insulating material surrounds the bottom electrode is in contact with tungsten on the outer surface of the bottom electrode. The storage element is located on the upper surface of the bottom electrode, the storage element includes a tungsten oxide compound, and the storage element can be programmed to at least two resistance states. And the top electrode, the top electrode overlay and contact the storage element. In addition, the plug has a first lateral dimension, the bottom electrode has a lateral dimension, the lateral dimension is parallel to the first lateral dimension of the plug, and the lateral dimension is smaller than the first lateral dimension of the plug.
Manufacturing method (2)
The tungsten oxide storage part is formed using a non-critical mask tungsten oxide material, or in some embodiments, it may be formed without any mask. The memory device disclosed herein includes a bottom electrode and a memory element, and the memory element is located on the bottom electrode. The memory element includes a tungsten oxide compound and has more than two resistance states; the upper electrode includes a barrier material located on the memory element, and the purpose of the barrier material is to prevent metal ions from moving from the upper electrode into the memory.
Compared with traditional semiconductor storage devices, tungsten oxide storage devices have better response performance.
Tungsten oxide is a very classic low-dimensional transition metal oxide material, which is attracted by its special physical and chemical properties (such as electrochromism, photochromism, catalytic activity, superconductivity and large load capacity, etc.) A large number of materials, semiconductor devices, and physics and chemistry researchers are paying attention. However, there is no report on white tungsten oxide and its preparation method.
The chemical formula of white tungsten oxide is the same as that of purple tungsten oxide, which is W18O49. It can be excited to become blue under the irradiation of ultraviolet light, and it can be restored to white after removing the ultraviolet light. It is widely used in construction, automobiles and other fields.
A method of producing white W18O49, there are the following steps:
Disperse the tungsten hexachloride ultrasonically in anhydrous n-butanol, of which 150ml anhydrous n-butanol is used per gram of tungsten hexachloride. When the system turns from yellow to blue during the ultrasonic process, stop the ultrasound, and then add it to the system Sodium nitrate, the amount of sodium nitrate is 1.5-3 times the mass of tungsten hexachloride, put the mixed system into the reaction kettle, control the reaction temperature at 180-220°C, and control the reaction time at 6-12 hours; wait for the end of the reaction After cooling to room temperature, the obtained product was washed with water and ethanol, centrifuged, and dried to obtain powdery white W18O49.
This method uses tungsten hexachloride and n-butanol as reactants. The color of the reaction product W18O49 can be adjusted by controlling the amount of sodium nitrate added. When the mass ratio of sodium nitrate and tungsten hexachloride is more than 3:2, white 118049 can be obtained. . The advantage is that by adding sodium nitrate to the system to modify the surface of the tungsten oxide, white tungsten oxide is obtained, which is obviously different from the W18O49 obtained by the general solvothermal method in appearance and color; and the production is simple and easy.
In addition to the production of tungsten trioxide (WO3) ultrafine particles, they can be used to produce tungsten powder, tungsten carbide powder, yellow ceramics, electrode materials for energy storage batteries, anti-corrosion paints and coatings, and can also be used to make multifunctional mulch films. Compared with ordinary agricultural film, the agricultural film containing tungsten oxide additives has higher comprehensive performance, which is mainly manifested in better heat insulation effect and better light transmission performance.
In areas with strong sunlight, when the temperature is too high, it is easy to produce drought and cell dehydration, which affects the physiological and metabolic activities of plants, such as photosynthesis, water metabolism, endogenous hormones, and thermal stability of cell membranes, which in turn leads to the appearance and growth of plants abnormal. Therefore, it is of practical significance to produce agricultural film with good heat insulation effect. However, a film with excellent heat insulation effect means that it has better near-infrared absorption performance.
In addition to good heat release effect, the new thermal insulation film also needs to have excellent light transmittance, so that it is convenient for managers to observe the production of crops at any time, without lifting the film, which improves the work efficiency of managers. At the same time, it can also reduce the rate of film breakage. The agricultural film with excellent light transmittance means that it has a higher transmittance to visible light.
WO3 is a classic transition metal n-type semiconductor material. It has excellent optical properties, that is, it has a significant absorption effect on near-infrared light in the 1400~1600nm and 1900~2200nm bands, and it also has high permeability to visible light. Therefore, it is favored by materials researchers at home and abroad. It is often used as a key modifier for commercial mulch films, which can significantly increase the near-infrared absorption capacity and light transmittance of the product, which is more conducive to the growth of crops.
Tungstic acid is made of artificial white tungsten (CaWO4) and concentrated acid under heating and cooking conditions. Artificial white tungsten is prepared by removing molybdenum (Mo) from industrial sodium tungstate solution by sodium sulfide method and adding calcium chloride. If the process is not treated by the sodium sulfide method, there will be no molybdenum removal effect, and the sodium sulfide method for removing molybdenum is more troublesome. Because the process needs to be produced under high temperature and high acidity conditions, it has high energy consumption and high acid consumption. The corrosiveness is strong, and the yield is not high. Therefore, the following will introduce a new production process of tungstic acid. The specific steps are as follows:
Add hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) complexing agent to industrial sodium tungstate (concentration between 0.2N and 1N). The amount of complexing agent is the molar ratio of tungsten: hydrogen peroxide of 2:1 to 2:2, add hydrochloric acid in the room temperature range of 10℃ to 28℃ to make the solution acidity between 0.5N and 2N (if the content of chromium and molybdenum impurities in sodium tungstate is high, the acidity of the solution should be adjusted to 2N), and then pass sulfur dioxide or add sulfite or bisulfite to directly prepare tungstic acid. The prepared tungstic acid is washed sequentially with 1N HCl, 0.5N HCl and absolute ethanol to obtain a pure product. Note: The amount of sulfur dioxide or sulfite or bisulfite is that the molar ratio of sulfur dioxide or sulfite or bisulfite: hydrogen peroxide is between 1:0.7 and 1:1.3.
Compared with the existing production method, the advantages of this technology are that in addition to the classic sodium sulfide removal of molybdenum process and the process of preparing artificial white tungsten with calcium chloride; since concentrated acid is no longer needed, it consumes less acid and consumes less energy and wastes; the production efficiency can be 98%, which is 10% higher than the existing process, and the molybdenum removal effect can reach 70% to 80%.
In general, the new technology has the advantages of simple operation, high yield, weak corrosiveness, less three wastes, high purity and high activity.
Ammonium Paratungstate(APT) is an important raw material product in tungsten smelting process, the appearance is white crystalline.
Photothermal therapy utilizes with high light heat conversion efficiency, inject it into the human body, target recognition technique is used to aggregate near the tumor tissue.
The industrial production department has put forward more and more strict requirements on the performance of lubricating oil (grease).
Tungsten sulfide is an excellent solid lubricant material, it has high application value in the field of super solid lubrication, especially its role in the aerospace industry.
Tungsten carbide-based cemented carbide is widely used in cemented carbide, and high-quality tungsten carbide powder is the basis for preparing high-performance cemented carbide. What is the preparation method of high crystallinity tungsten carbide powder?
A preparation method of tungsten carbide powder with high carbonization crystal integrity and fast carbonization rate includes the following steps:
1) After mixing tungsten powder and carbon black, press the compact into a compact by a press; 2) Carburize the compact in step (1), after the carbonization is completed, ball milling and sieving can obtain high crystallinity tungsten carbide powder.
Precautions for this preparation method:
1. In step (1), the F.S.S.S. particle size of the tungsten powder is 3-40μm, and the particle size of the tungsten powder is too fine and it is not easy to form during pressing. The pressing pressure of the press is 1.0-2.0mpa. The mixing is ball mill mixing, and the mixing time is 1~6h.
2. In step (2), the carbonization temperature is 1500-2500°C. As a preference, when the tungsten powder's F.S.S.S. particle size in step (1) is 3-13μm, the carbonization temperature is 1500-2000°C. When the particle size is greater than 13μm, the carbonization temperature is generally 2000-2500°C.
3. In step (2), the carbonization should be carried out in a vacuum, inert gas or hydrogen atmosphere. The carbonization time is 1 to 6 hours, preferably 2 to 4 hours. The ball milling time is 0.5 to 4 hours. The sieving is twice sieving, the first sieving, the sieve mesh is 100-264 mesh, the second sieving, the sieve mesh is 60-180, the second sieving sieve aperture is larger than the first time.
The principle of the preparation method: in the process of producing tungsten carbide powder, the main function of using a press to press the mixture of tungsten powder and carbon black into a compact includes the following aspects: (1) The compacting effect makes the carbon black particles and the tungsten powder particles close together, and shortens the carbonization reaction distance. (2) Thermal insulation, make full use of the exothermic heat of the carbonization reaction to increase the speed of the carbonization reaction. (3) Forming function, the massive tungsten carbide does not need to be pre-crushed, directly enters the next ball milling process. (4) Isolation. There is no surface penetration of tungsten powder and carbon black compacts and sintering vessels during the carbonization process, which eliminates the surface dirty phenomenon in the traditional carbonization process and improves the quality of tungsten carbide.
Compared with the tungsten oxide reduction-carbonization method widely used in the mass production of tungsten carbide at home and abroad, the method introduced in this article can prepare high-quality tungsten carbide powder and is relatively simple to implement. It only needs to put a press in traditional tungsten carbide production lines.
Spherical tungsten powder is used as a raw material in industries such as tungsten and tungsten alloy 3D printing, porous materials, and high-density powder spraying, and its preparation methods have attracted attention. So, what are the 6 preparation methods for spherical tungsten powder?
The main domestic methods for preparing spherical tungsten powder are as follows:
1.Using the technology of secondary oxidation and reduction of tungsten powder, quasi-spherical tungsten powder can be obtained, and the manufacturing cost is low, but the spheroidization is not sufficient.
2. Using the granulation and sintering method to produce spherical powder for thermal spraying, spherical tungsten powder with a particle size of 40-750μm can be obtained. The density of the tungsten powder is not high, and the particle diameter is relatively large, and the powder is relatively coarse.
3. Use tungsten hexafluoride as raw material to prepare fine-particle (3～5μm) spherical tungsten powder. This method involves a strong corrosive gas and the production conditions are relatively harsh. In today's society, there is a high environmental protection requirement. There is still a certain distance from large-scale production.
4. The tungsten rod uses the rotating electrode DC arc plasma method to prepare spherical tungsten powder. This method can only used for preparing coarser particles (150-1700μm), but cannot prepare fine spherical tungsten powder, and the equipment cost is very expensive.
The main methods for preparing spherical tungsten powder abroad are as follows:
1. Obtain large particle size (40～650um) spherical tungsten powder from tungsten hexafluoride by vapor deposition. Because the process involves strong corrosive hydrofluoric acid, the production conditions are harsh and the environmental protection requirements are high, so It is difficult to gain widespread popularity in practical applications.
2. Spheroidizing and air-cooling Cr, Ta, Mo, W, MgO and other powders with an inductively coupled plasma torch can obtain spherical tungsten powder, but this preparation method requires a large cooling chamber, which must be using high-purity argon gas, the cost is very high, and the spheroidization rate of the powder after one treatment can only reach 85%. If you want to obtain all spherical powders, you need to perform multiple sorting and re-spheroidization processes. This obviously greatly increases production costs.
Carbon neutral refers to the use of afforestation, energy saving and emission reduction to offset the carbon dioxide emissions generated by itself and achieve "zero emissions" of carbon dioxide. Carbon neutral is a solution proposed in response to global warming.
Climate warming is the most concerned climate issue of humans all over the world today, and the core of climate warming is the increase in greenhouse gas carbon dioxide emissions caused by the increase in human activities.
In response to this issue, from the 2009 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen to the 2015 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris, all emphasis was placed on reducing carbon emissions.
Up to now, the European Union, China, Japan, South Korea, etc. have all proposed carbon neutrality goals. The US President-elect Biden also proposed in his speech that the United States should return to the Paris Agreement. The basic requirement is the time when the United States should propose carbon neutral schedule. In other words, within the next year, all major economies in the world will participate in the process of achieving carbon neutrality.
Two important speeches this year in China both mentioned the need to control carbon emissions, and the Economic Work Conference also list carbon peaking and carbon neutral as one of the eight key tasks for next year. The 14th Five-Year Plan will become the key stage for China's carbon peak and carbon neutral. China promotes of carbon neutral also has the meaning of ensuring energy security, promoting economic transformation and promoting global development.
Two paths for tungsten oxide to help achieving the goal of carbon neutral:
First, carbon reduction at the power generation end: including photovoltaic, wind power, hydropower, nuclear power, and UHV links. As the main raw material of photovoltaic silver, tungsten oxide has excellent electrical conductivity.
Second, carbon reduction on the consumer side: including promoting the consumption of new energy vehicles, the development of energy storage, the use of degradable plastics, and green buildings. Because of its larger specific surface area and higher theoretical capacity, tungsten oxide has gradually become an ideal choice for replacing cobalt as a cathode material for lithium batteries.
Due to the intensification of the global greenhouse effect, extreme climate changes have been caused, resulting in a significant reduction in the area of arable land and making crops difficult to grow. Greenhouse cultivation can reduce the disasters caused by the climate to agricultural production, and maintain the stable production of crops, and solve the famine problems that may be faced in the future.
It is a gradual trend in crop planting methods. Due to the increasingly serious problem of oil shortage and global warming, the promotion of energy conservation and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions have become the goals of various governments. Among them, the promotion of energy-saving green buildings is a key project, so energy-saving greenhouses that can reduce energy use have also become a new development trend.
The greenhouse shell shoulders the important functions of sheltering wind, rain, light regulation, heat insulation or heat preservation. The light-transmitting covering material is the main structural component that affects the exchange of light, heat and air inside and outside the greenhouse. The temperature in the greenhouse rises to very high in summer, which is not conducive to plant growth and personnel work. Artificial cooling measures also waste energy and increase cultivation costs. Although the high-performance greenhouse light-transmitting covering material has the opportunity to isolate the heat radiation part of the sun, and maintain high light transmission, solve the problem of indoor overheating. However, the currently commercially available greenhouse light-transmitting covering materials are insufficiently insulated, and there is still much room for improvement.
The wavelength of solar thermal energy reaching the surface of the earth is mainly at 280~3000nm. Among them, 280~380nm is ultraviolet light, 380~780nm is visible light, and 780~3000nm is infrared light. For plants, light in the 400-700nm wavelength range is required for photosynthesis, especially the strongest absorption band of chlorophyll is in the blue-violet light 400-480nm and red-orange light region 600-680nm, which has a great impact on plant growth. The response of plants to the length of day and night is the photoperiod. Red light and far-red light have a significant impact on the photoperiod effect. The red light of 600~700nm will inhibit the elongation of the stem and the divergence of the plant, and sometimes cause the leaves to be small and thick, and affect the flowering of the plant. The far-red light of 700~780nm will promote the elongation of stems and affect the flowering of plants. Ultraviolet light 280~380nm generally has an adverse effect on plants, but UVB at 280~315nm has minimal impact on morphology and physiological processes. The major impact is UVA at 315~380nm, which will affect the photoperiod effect and prevent stem extension. Long, plants are easy to burn, stimulate the germination of fungal spores, pathogens and viruses are also easy to invade, but it can make the flowers or fruits of plants brighter.
Optical performance requirements for greenhouse films
1. High light transmittance and stable
2. High light scattering
3. High infrared light barrier
4. Proper UV light barrier properties
The thermal insulation dispersion prepared by ammonium metatungstate and acrylic glue are used to make a nano organic-inorganic hybrid coating, and then this coating is coated on the surface of the polyester film to form a high-performance thermal insulating agricultural membrane. This transparent nanoparticle coating film can provide high see-through rate while blocking infrared rays, thus achieving high light transmission and high heat insulation effects. The optical properties of the thermal insulation film are related to the dispersibility of the thermal insulation powder in the resin. Generally speaking, the overall light transmittance of the heat insulation film can be maintained at 60~80%, and the infrared light blocking rate can reach 78~98%. Compared with the optical performance of the top-level thermal insulation films on the market, the optical performance of each other is not much different. Therefore, the use of nano-coating methods can produce products comparable to the top-level commercially available thermal insulation film, which has the advantages of simple manufacturing process and low cost. Therefore, greenhouse films will have great market demand in the future to maintain stable production of crops.
In order to protect the environment, human efforts to develop new, efficient, low toxicity, pollution-free corrosion inhibitors, sodium tungstate quickly favored by people.
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