2017年4月23日星期日

Nanosized Ceramic Powder Market —Tungsten Oxide

Global markets advanced nanosized ceramic powder should show a solid, and the growth rate of nano-ceramic powder segment should be more than doubled advanced ceramic powder segment, at 2021 significantly expand its overall market share.

ceramic powde photo

Both advanced ceramic and nano-ceramic powders belong to functional ceramics, which can be used in cutting tools to artificial bone implants, mechanical seals, ceramic liners, bearings, thread guides ect.. At present, major efforts are underway to apply structural ceramics to automotive reciprocation engines for wear components.

The performance improvements are the driving force behind the continued development and commercialization of high-performance ceramic coatings. These coatings are generally applied to engineering metals, like titanium alloys, tungsten carbides and other ceramics.

Oxide ceramics will continue to stay in the leading position. Tungsten oxide being an important functional material is widely applied in electrochromic, toxic gas detection and photocatalytic degradation ect.. High purity tungsten trioxide dense ceramics as a target purposes is particularly important to form an industrialization. Thus reducing the production cost of tungsten trioxide film, sets the foundation for better preparation and properties of tungsten trioxide thin films.


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Tungsten Oxide -- New Material of Concrete Antimicrobial and Anticorrosive in Sewer

Sewer is the integral part of infrastructure in a city which plays an irreplaceable role in the living environment of safety, construction and comfortable. In recent years, the corrosion degradation has caused many social problems, such as the collapse of the road, and thus attracted widespread attention.
nickel and tungsten oxide photo

Sewer corrosion mainly brought out by the oxidation of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and generated the sulfuric acid and hydrogen sulfide which constantly corrode the pipe surface. In the past, anti-corrosion protection of concrete structures sewer facility is mainly used in the surface coating or a coating method for coating a sheet of resin-based material. These methods have a big challenge in terms of construction; besides, the adhesion and anti-scratch is weak; with relatively short life (only 3 to 6 years). Therefore, a new material with strong anti-corrosion is called.

Recently, studies have shown that tungsten oxide and nickel as the antimicrobial agent doped in the concrete, pays the role of inhibiting the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria antibacterial activity, is a new anticorrosive material with excellent durability. Sulfur oxidizing bacteria is acidophilus which the optimum growth pH range is 2~3; tungsten oxide dissolved in the acid which can inhibit the growth of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria with the joint function of nickel, thereby suppressing the formation of sulfuric acid. Compared to ordinary concrete, the corrosion depth of this concrete is only 1/5 of it, and the sulfur penetration depth of about 1/4 of it; presumably, that anti-bacterial concrete contains mixtures of tungsten oxide and nickel can ensure 50 years of standard service life. In addition, the experimental results of elution maximum body and toxicity of the antimicrobial concrete have shown that its toxicity is very low and does not cause adverse effects on the environment; what the most importantly is that as a building material, it doesn’t causes any negative effect compressive strength to concrete.


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Tungsten Oxide Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye Pollutants

A WO3–graphene photocatalyst has been developed that can degrade the dye Rhodamine B almost completely in 15 minutes. This is much faster than the degradation times that can be achieved by bare WO3 or TiO2. The catalyst consists of a porous tungsten oxide framework with a graphene film and is directly produced via electrospinning. The authors from China and the USA envision that this potent electrocatalyst can be used in environmental applications for the photocatalytic degradation of dye pollutants under visible light.
Tungsten Oxide Photocatalysis
The superior properties of the photocatalyst can be explained by its components and structure. The WO3 nanoframework efficiently absorbs visible light due to multiple reflections in the pores. A rapid charge transfer to graphene takes place, which avoids charge recombination. Additionally, graphene nanosheets are exposed on the surface. This enables π–π conjugation between graphene and dyes leading to high adsorption rates of the substrate on the catalyst material. These combined properties lead to enhanced dye degradation via photocatalysis.

Scientists proposed that WO3–graphene composite can be used to address challenges in environmental remediation. In this context, they highlight that the facile preparation of the material via electrospinning is suitable for production on an industrial scale.


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Tungsten Oxide Thin Film Electrode Cyclic Voltammetry

To study the cyclic voltammetry of tungsten oxide thin film electrode, use three-electrode system, sulfuric acid solucion as electrolyte, the property is observed by measuring light current. Below is cyclic voltammograms of WO3 thin film electrode being heat treatment under 450℃ under dark and 500W xenon light source (light strength 100Mw/cm2). Under darkness the polarization current of electrode is small within the scanning range, it is far smaller than anode polarization current under light. Photoelectrochemical reaction under light has good reversibility. Within electric potential 0.35~1.2V(vs.Ag/AgCl), cathode Pt and anode WO3 thin film electrode reaction is as following:
Anode:2OH-+ h+ → O2 ↑+ 2H+
Cathode:2H+ + 2e- → H

YTO photo


When exposed to light, if the applied bias is low, the Fermi level of WO3 is higher, electrolysis solution accepter is easier to trap photo electron near WO3 electrolyte interface of electrode, so the photo current of anode is weaker, even comes close to 0. With the increasing of bias, Fermi level of WO3 decreases as well, the accepter of electrolyte to trap the photo electron is getting harder which makes the photo electron largely spread to the electric substrate. When bias comes to a certain level, the extra electric filed enlarges the migration rate of photo electron, so photo current of anode strengthens with the shuffling of current.


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Tungsten Oxide Photodegradation Organic Pollutant

Tungsten oxide is an ideal photocatalyst in transition metal oxide which has properties of high catalytic property, low cost, nontoxic and stable. It is now used to degrade organic pollutant such as ethanal, chloroform and fuel into inorganic material. The principle is degrade it into CO2 and H2O, it has high photodegradation efficient and wide application prospect.

According to thermodynamic argument, the electron hole on the surface of tungsten oxide oxidizes the OH- and hydrone into OH- (free radical). OH- has strong oxidation capability, it can oxidize most of organic and inorganic pollutant and degrade them into innoxious substance like CO2 and H2O. On the other side, active electron on the surface of tungsten oxide has strong reducing capability, it can reduce and remove heave metal ion in the water.

Tungsten Oxide Crystalline Structure

Early research is mainly about applying nano powder semiconductor catalyst in eliminating pollutant in water, but the recovery of catalyst is difficult, it needs dynamic mixing to maintain the suspension of catalyst, the active ingredients loss is significant. Besides that, granule catalyst may cause secondary pollution, it is hard to realize industrialization. In order to overcome the above shortcomings, people use the method of immobilization of photocatalyst which means immobilizing the WOcatalyst on the glass substrate. However, it lowers the specific surface area of catalyst, causes the reacting area with light reducing, affect catalytic activity. The combination strength of catalyst and substrate reduces, the acid and alkali resistance of substrate material is worse. Thus it isn’t suitable for industrial application.

In recent years, many newly developed nano structure catalyst, such as nanohole, nanotube, nanowire and nanorod. Its large specific surface area can promote the photocatalytic activity and photovoltaic conversion which greatly draw people’s attention. For example, use electrochemical anodic oxidation to prepare WO3 nano porous array can largely enlarge the specific surface area of thin film catalyst. It has better photocatalytic property than powder catalyst.


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Tungsten Oxide Smart Glass in Popular Culture

In tungsten oxide smart glass, the electrochromic material changes its opacity: it changes between a colored, translucent state (usually blue) and a transparent state. A burst of electricity is required for changing its opacity, but once the change has been effected, no electricity is needed for maintaining the particular shade which has been reached. Darkening occurs from the edges, moving inward, and is a slow process, ranging from many seconds to several minutes depending on window size.

Electrochromic glass provides visibility even in the darkened state and thus preserves visible contact with the outside environment. It has been used in small-scale applications such as rear view mirrors. Electrochromic technology also finds use in indoor applications, for example, for protection of objects under the glass of museum display cases and picture frame glass from the damaging effects of the UV and visible wavelengths of artificial light.

Glass Coating Window Photo

Tungsten oxide smart glass with electrochromic property has not only been applied in our daily life, but becomes common seen in popular culture like movie and TV series in recent years.

1.The 1982 film Blade Runner contains an early depiction of smart glass in a scene in which a room is darkened with a smart glass-like shade so Rick Deckard, played by Harrison Ford, can administer a polygraph-style test to determine whether Rachael, portrayed by Sean Young, is an organic robot known as a replicant.

2.The 1993 film Philadelphia features a scene in which a large conference room in the middle of the law firm has walls of glass on three sides. Jason Robards says, "Bill, will you get the windows?", and a switch is thrown, and all the windows immediately become translucent, so that no one can see them firing Tom Hanks' character.

3.Smart glass is seen in the 2002 motion picture The Sum of all Fears, in which Jack Ryan, played by Ben Affleck, is ushered into a secret room in the Pentagon, the windows of which whiten over as the door is shut.

4.Smart glass can be seen in the third season of the television series 24, where Jack Bauer changed the visibility to frosted glass to conceal the view as he was injecting heroin.

5.Smart glass is mentioned in Season Three, Episode Five of CSI:Miami, entitled "Legal", in which a young lady working undercover to expose underage drinking is murdered in a room shielded by what Ryan Wolfe refers to as "intelligent glass", where closing the door completes an electrical circuit, making the glass frost over and become opaque. The episode first aired in 2004.

6.Smart glass is seen in the television series Lie To Me with the interrogation/interview room at the Lightman Group offices consisting of what amounts to a room-sized box within a larger room, with smart glass walls. The walls appear to be white and opaque most of the time, but can be rendered clear to reveal those observing a subject from the outside.

7.Smart glass was featured in 2005 video game Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell: Chaos Theory in a fifth mission Displace International, enabling the main character to quickly switch between on and off modes with his OCP pistol attachment.

8.Smart glass is seen in use in White Collar season 1 episode 8 "Hard Sell" when Neal comes to tell Daniel Reed that Avery plans to betray him. Daniel flips a switch and his office window becomes frosted over, preventing Avery from peeking inside while they talk.

9.Smart glass was featured in the 2012 James Bond movie Skyfall, revealing Raoul Silva to M after he's captured.

10.Smart glass was used in the bathroom in the Real World: Austin.

11.Dimmable smart glass was featured in the 2014 film, Captain America: The Winter Soldierin the S.H.I.E.L.D. office in Washington, D.C.

12.Smart glass was featured in the 2014 animated feature Big Hero 6, used by Tadashi Hamada for his office.


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Tungsten Oxide Preparing Tungsten Disulfide Lubricant

Tungsten disulfide is a kind of solid inorganic lubricant material. The appearance and physical property is similar to calcium disulfide. The physical and chemical property of tungsten disulfide shows that it can not only be used in the regular lubricant, but also can be applied under certain high temperature, low temperature, high load, high vacuum and corrosion circumstances. It can be used with powder appearance, or can be mixed with lubricant, graphite, metal powder or plastic as compound materials.

With the development of scientific technology, the requirement for lubricant material has also been promoted. To solve the lubricant problems, tungsten disulfide has draw people’s attention like other innovative materials. Although there are many methods to prepare tungsten disulfide, the thorough material about its preparing method is rare. The method using tungsten oxide to prepare high purity tungsten disulfide is easy to operate and can assure the quality of the product.

Tungsten Oxide and WS2 photo

Preparing method:
Raw material: Tungsten oxide (WO3); Sulfuric acid: 20% aqueous solution; Sodium sulfate: 20% aqueous solution.
(1) Adding a certain amount of tungsten oxide into tray, then press it properly. Put the tray into the middle of tubular reactor, connect the conduit, seal the gaps between all interfaces with wax or stop-leak compound. Open the outlet valve of container of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfide, the hydrogen sulfide gas is obtained.

(2) Lead hydrogen sulfide from the bottom of container. After the outlet gas of the container is non-explosive gas (use tube to gather gas to test), clean the bottle by connecting sodium hydroxide container.

(3) Adjust flow rate of sulfuric acid and sodium sulfide solution to keep the pressure of system under 3.92~4.90kPa. Charge with electricity, upper the temperature to a certain value, and keep it stable, lower the temperature to 400℃ when input hydrogen sulfide. Then stop inputting and keep it to room temperature.

Under high temperature, tungsten oxide reacts with hydrogen sulfide, tungsten disulfide with chemical formula WS1.98一WS2.12 is obtained. This method is easy to operate and stable.


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Wi-Fi Enabled Tungsten Oxide Smart Window Film

Curtains have been around for many years without much improvement. The small advances that have been made, such as motorized shades and smart glass, can be extremely expensive and complex to install. Latest, the smart glass window Wi-Fi enabled has been invented. According to the manufacturer, this kind of film maybe revolutionizes the industry of windows and curtains.

smart film photo

So, you may ask: what is digital shade? Digital shade (or smart film) is a technology that allows the color of the film to go from transparent to non-transparent when you apply a current through it, also the level of transparency is able to control. The tungsten oxide smart window film with Wi-Fi will give you the option for privacy on demand by adjusting the amount of light traveling through your glass window; and with the multi-purpose, it can used in the commercial, home use, such as meeting rooms, offices, living room, dining room and bathrooms.

The tungsten oxide smart film is based on digital shading technology that allows the color of the film to go from non-transparent to transparent when you apply a current through it. It brings you no need to replace your windows or glass partition as it can be retro-fit onto any glass surface in your living room, bathroom, office or any other glass surface you choose. The disadvantage is that once installed, it may cause a slight affect on the general appearance and clarity of the windows. The most interesting is that the film is Wi-Fi enabled which makes it really simple to use and operate, that means you can control the film from anywhere in your home or office just at a touch of the button.

With the property of electrochromic, tungsten trioxide has been the ideal adjustment electro-optical material and it can be made into tungsten trioxide film which is the electrochromic layer of the smart film.

Let us image, in the near future, we will not need the cloth curtains, no longer sorrow for the insulation and privacy, and our life will be simple with the tungsten oxide smart glass window film. 


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