2016年5月20日星期五

Tungsten Oxide Photocatalytic Degradation of Dye Pollutants

A WO3–graphene photocatalyst has been developed that can degrade the dye Rhodamine B almost completely in 15 minutes. This is much faster than the degradation times that can be achieved by bare WO3 or TiO2. The catalyst consists of a porous WO3 framework with a graphene film and is directly produced via electrospinning. The authors from China and the USA envision that this potent electrocatalyst can be used in environmental applications for the degradation of pollutants under visible light.
Tungsten Oxide Photocatalysis
The superior properties of the photocatalyst can be explained by its components and structure. The WO3 nanoframework efficiently absorbs visible light due to multiple reflections in the pores. A rapid charge transfer to graphene takes place, which avoids charge recombination. Additionally, graphene nanosheets are exposed on the surface. This enables π–π conjugation between graphene and dyes leading to high adsorption rates of the substrate on the catalyst material. These combined properties lead to enhanced dye degradation via photocatalysis.
Scientists proposed that WO3–graphene composite can be used to address challenges in environmental remediation. In this context, they highlight that the facile preparation of the material via electrospinning is suitable for production on an industrial scale.

Tungsten Oxide-- New Material of Concrete Antimicrobial and Anticorrosive in Sewer

Sewer is the integral part of infrastructure in a city which plays an irreplaceable role in the living environment of safety, construction and comfortable. In recent years, the corrosion degradation has caused many social problems, such as the collapse of the road, and thus attracted widespread attention.
 Tungsten Oxide
Sewer corrosion mainly brought out by the oxidation of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria and generated the sulfuric acid and hydrogen sulfide which constantly corrode the pipe surface. In the past, anti-corrosion protection of concrete structures sewer facility is mainly used in the surface coating or a coating method for coating a sheet of resin-based material. These methods have a big challenge in terms of construction; besides, the adhesion and anti-scratch is weak; with relatively short life (only 3 to 6 years). Therefore, a new material with strong anti-corrosion is called.
 
Recently, studies have shown that tungsten oxide and nickel as the antimicrobial agent doped in the concrete, pays the role of inhibiting the sulfur-oxidizing bacteria antibacterial activity, is a new anti-corrosion material with excellent durability. Sulfur oxidizing bacteria is acidophilus which the optimum growth pH range is 2~3; tungsten oxide dissolved in the acid which can inhibit the growth of sulfur-oxidizing bacteria with the joint function of nickel, thereby suppressing the formation of sulfuric acid. Compared to ordinary concrete, the corrosion depth of this concrete is only 1/5 of it, and the sulfur penetration depth of about 1/4 of it; presumably, that anti-bacterial concrete contains mixtures of tungsten oxide and nickel can ensure 50 years of standard service life. In addition, the experimental results of elution maximum body and toxicity of the antimicrobial concrete have shown that its toxicity is very low and does not cause adverse effects on the environment; what the most importantly is that as a building material, it doesn’t causes any negative effect compressive strength to concrete.

Wi-Fi Enabled Tungsten Oxide Smart Window Film

Curtains have been around for many years without much improvement. The small advances that have been made, such as motorized shades and smart glass, can be extremely expensive and complex to install. Latest, the smart glass window Wi-Fi enabled has been invented. According to the manufacturer, this kind of film maybe revolutionizes the industry of windows and curtains.

So, you may ask: what is digital shade? Digital shade (or smart film) is a technology that allows the color of the film to go from transparent to non-transparent when you apply a current through it, also the level of transparency is able to control. The tungsten oxide smart glass window film with Wi-Fi will give you the option for privacy on demand by adjusting the amount of light traveling through your glass window; and with the multi-purpose, it can used in the commercial, home use, such as meeting rooms, offices, living room, dining room and bathrooms.
 Tungsten Oxide Smart Window Film
The tungsten oxide smart film is based on digital shading technology that allows the color of the film to go from non-transparent to transparent when you apply a current through it. It brings you no need to replace your windows or glass partition as it can be retro-fit onto any glass surface in your living room, bathroom, office or any other glass surface you choose. The disadvantage is that once installed, it may cause a slight affect on the general appearance and clarity of the windows. The most interesting is that the film is Wi-Fi enabled which makes it really simple to use and operate, that means you can control the film from anywhere in your home or office just at a touch of the button.
 
With the property of electrochromic, tungsten trioxide has been the ideal adjustment electro-optical material and it can be made into tungsten trioxide film which is the electrochromic layer of the smart film.
 
Let us image, in the near future, we will not need the cloth curtains, no longer sorrow for the insulation and privacy, and our life will be simple with the tungsten oxide smart glass window film. 

Tungsten Oxide Smart Glass in Popular Culture

In tungsten oxide smart glass, the electrochromic material changes its opacity: it changes between a colored, translucent state (usually blue) and a transparent state. A burst of electricity is required for changing its opacity, but once the change has been effected, no electricity is needed for maintaining the particular shade which has been reached. Darkening occurs from the edges, moving inward, and is a slow process, ranging from many seconds to several minutes depending on window size.
Electrochromic glass provides visibility even in the darkened state and thus preserves visible contact with the outside environment. It has been used in small-scale applications such as rearview mirrors. Electrochromic technology also finds use in indoor applications, for example, for protection of objects under the glass of museum display cases and picture frame glass from the damaging effects of the UV and visible wavelengths of artificial light.
tungsten oxide smart glass
Tungsten oxide smart glass with electrochromic property has not only been applied in our daily life, but becomes popular in culture like movie and TV series in recent years.
1.The 1982 film Blade Runner contains an early depiction of smart glass in a scene in which a room is darkened with a smart glass-like shade so Rick Deckard, played by Harrison Ford, can administer a polygraph-style test to determine whether Rachael, portrayed by Sean Young, is an organic robot known as a replicant.
2.The 1993 film Philadelphia features a scene in which a large conference room in the middle of the law firm has walls of glass on three sides. Jason Robards says, "Bill, will you get the windows?", and a switch is thrown, and all the windows immediately become translucent, so that no one can see them firing Tom Hanks' character.
3.Smart glass is seen in the 2002 motion picture The Sum of all Fears, in which Jack Ryan, played by Ben Affleck, is ushered into a secret room in the Pentagon, the windows of which whiten over as the door is shut.
4.Smart glass can be seen in the third season of the television series 24, where Jack Bauer changed the visibility to frosted glass to conceal the view as he was injecting heroin.
5.Smart glass is mentioned in Season Three, Episode Five of CSI:Miami, entitled "Legal", in which a young lady working undercover to expose underage drinking is murdered in a room shielded by what Ryan Wolfe refers to as "intelligent glass", where closing the door completes an electrical circuit, making the glass frost over and become opaque. The episode first aired in 2004.
6.Smart glass is seen in the television series Lie To Me with the interrogation/interview room at the Lightman Group offices consisting of what amounts to a room-sized box within a larger room, with smart glass walls. The walls appear to be white and opaque most of the time, but can be rendered clear to reveal those observing a subject from the outside.
7.Smart glass was featured in 2005 video game Tom Clancy's Splinter Cell: Chaos Theory in a fifth mission Displace International, enabling the main character to quickly switch between on and off modes with his OCP pistol attachment.
8.Smart glass is seen in use in White Collar season 1 episode 8 "Hard Sell" when Neal comes to tell Daniel Reed that Avery plans to betray him. Daniel flips a switch and his office window becomes frosted over, preventing Avery from peeking inside while they talk.
9.Smart glass was featured in the 2012 James Bond movie Skyfall, revealing Raoul Silva to M after he's captured.
10.Smart glass was used in the bathroom in the Real World: Austin.
11.Dimmable smart glass was featured in the 2014 film, Captain America: The Winter Soldierin the S.H.I.E.L.D. office in Washington, D.C.
12.Smart glass was featured in the 2014 animated feature Big Hero 6, used by Tadashi Hamada for his office.