2020年6月1日星期一

Tungsten Silicate Catalytic Synthesis Cinnamic Acid Isopentyl Acetate

Tungsten silicate is a kind of tungsten heteropoly acid with Keggin structure, recently it is widely used as food additives on catalytic synthesis.

cinnamic acid isopentyl acetate image

Its appearance is white or pale yellow deliquescent crystal. Isopentyl cinnamate is a kind of perfume. It is a colorless viscous liquid with cocoa flavor. It is mainly used in food and daily chemical industry. It is a kind of spice which has a bright future to be developed. The traditional synthesis is catalyzed by sulfuric acid, cinnamic acid and isoamyl alcohol process acetification, the main drawback of this method is the existence of long reaction time, low yield, complex process polluted water on environment, sulfate has strong corrosive effect on equipment.

Tungsten silicate is an environmentally friendly green catalyst, it has the structural characteristics of complexes and metal oxides, it has the acid catalysts function as inorganic acids (such as sulfuric acid) and solid acids (such as molecular sieves). In the food additives industry, it has also been used to replace traditional acid catalysts, both effective and environmentally friendly.

Test method for synthesis of cinnamic acid isopentyl acetate is that get some cinnamic acid and a certain amount of catalyst, water carrying agent (benzene) isoamyl alcohol into three bottles, equipped with water separator, the water separator is equipped with quantitative saturated salt water, heat the reflux with an electric pan,  then begin to steam the water carrying agent and the excess alcohol 15min before stopping the reaction, and cool the product down.

The reaction conditions for tungsten silicate catalytic synthesis of cinnamic acid isopentyl acetate is mild, acetification rate is high, less dosage, recyclable. Therefore, tungsten silicate can be used instead of many kinds of food additives in the synthesis of acid catalysts, which is basically a consensus among many scholars.

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Tungsten Silicate Catalyze Preparing Edible Flavor Octyl Acetate

Tungsten silicate is a tungsten heteropoly acid, its appearance is white or pale yellow deliquescent crystal, soluble in water and alcohol, soluble in crystal water itself.

octyl acetate image

When heated, it has decomposition when under 600~650°C. Tungsten heteropoly acid is often used as a catalyst, so as tungsten silicate.

Octyl acetate exist in citrus oil, green tea leaf oils and so on, it also exist in fruit. Octyl acetate is identified as non-toxic food by FEMA (the flavor and Extract Manufacturers Association). The preparation of octyl acetate can not be separated from the strong acid catalyst. Due to the oxidation and strong dehydration of concentrated sulfuric acid, the esterification rate is reduced, the quality of ester is poor, and the equipment is seriously corroded. A lot of waste liquid is produced in the post-treatment process, which pollutes the environment and so on.

Tungsten heteropoly acid is a kind of green environmental friendly catalyst, in recent years, in the food additives industry, it is widely used to replace traditional acid catalyst, it is efficient and environmentally friendly. Phosphotungstic acid and tungsten silicate is that kind of catalyst.

Method for preparing octyl acetate is that a certain amount of acetic acid, octyl alcohol and tungsten silicate in three bottles, oil bath is heated to a certain temperature, after stirring, reflux, and cooling down the reaction liquid, filtering to remove the catalyst, filtrate analysis by gas chromatography, to test the alcohol conversion rate and selectivity of octyl acetate. The optimum conditions for the preparation and esterification of the catalyst were determined by changing the amount of catalyst, the time of calcination, the molar ratio of acetic acid to octanol, the amount of catalyst, the reaction temperature and time. Through a series of evaluation we conclude that the suitable conditions for the catalytic esterification of tungsten silicate is that ratio of acid to alcohol is 1.3:1, the amount of catalyst 0.2g/0.1mol octanol, reaction time for 1H, reaction temperature is 100~118°C. Under this condition, the esterification rate can reach 99.30%.

Tungsten silicate has good catalytic activity in the synthesis of octyl acetate, it has short reaction time, high esterification rate, no waste acid discharge, simple process, the catalyst can be reused, therefore, tungsten silicate is an excellent catalyst for the synthesis of octyl acetate, it has a good prospect of industrial application.

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Single Layer Tungsten Disulfide Challenge Graphene (1)

Graphene, also called monatomic graphene, is a quasi two-dimensional material with only one atomic layer.

Graphene is one of the newest, most powerful, conductive and thermal conductive materials. The "king of transistors" that is expected to replace silicon in the future. Since the first two-dimensional material graphene was discovered in experiments, two-dimensional electronic materials have been studied for more than 10 years. Two dimensional materials are the thickness of only one atom, also known as a single layer of material, they are several hundred times smaller than the thickness of a sheet of paper. Nano monolayer two tungsten sulfide is also a two-dimensional material, moreover, in the field of semiconductor transistors, single layer two tungsten disulfide has a functional advantage that graphene does not have.

single layer two tungsten sulfide image

Transistors refer to all single elements based on semiconductor material. In a transistor, electrons pass from one end (S) to the other via a channel (D), when the process is complete, the delivery of information is complete. Because the speed of electrons is limited, in modern transistors, they usually run at saturation speed, so the time required is basically determined by the length of the channel. The shorter, the faster.

Now we are mainly producing silicon materials for transistors. In the micron era, the smaller the transistor size, the smaller the channel length and the shorter the electron transmission distance. This represents the faster processor chips, higher integration rates, and lower cost.

But by 2005, Inter and AMD, two computer microprocessors, would no longer boost CPU frequency but switch to multicore architectures, as did the development of mobile microprocessors. The reason is that, first, Moore's law, the higher the processor frequency, the greater the power consumption, when the frequency reaches 5G, the computer is a big stove; Two is the silicon wafer size has reached the limit at 20 nm, reducing the most significance, that is, reducing power consumption, performance is very limited. Thus, since then, CPU turned to multi-core architecture optimization, which is later dual core, quad core, eight core CPU appear reasons.

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【Know Tungsten】Tungsten Powder Export

China is a dominant country of tungsten resources and tungsten powder export, and export control conditions of 4xy3, has canceled export quota in 2016 and transferred to goods of export license administration.

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2020年5月1日星期五

Talking About Past and Present -- Flotation

Flotation, also known as flotation separation, is a method of separating useful minerals from ores according to the physical and chemical properties of mineral particles.

In the 18th century, it was known that the gas adhered solid particles rose to the surface of the water; In the 19th century, people used gasification (boiled pulp) or acid and carbonate minerals generated by the reaction of flotation graphite flotation. In the late nineteenth Century, due to the increasing demand for metals, the resources of coarse lead, zinc and copper sulfide ores were reduced gradually, in Australia, the United States and some European countries, flotation has been used to fine grained ores to provide concentrates for smelting.

At the beginning of the industrial age, the most widely used flotation method is the total oil flotation, it is based on the oily and hydrophilic nature of the mineral and is stirred by adding a large amount of oil to the pulp, the lipophilic mineral sticking to the oil layer is scraped out and separated from the hydrophilic gangue minerals. This method began in 1898 for the treatment of lead and zinc sulfide industrial production, but because of small production capacity, poor sorting, fuel consumption costs, and soon be eliminated.

flotation image

In 1902, the Americans proposed a method of pellet flotation, in a small amount of oil and soap agents under the conditions of the slurry in the sulfide ore selective flocculation into pellets, thus, the dispersed gangue can be washed away and separated from the aggregate minerals. This method once replaced the whole oil flotation, but it seems that the time is not long.

The froth flotation process, which we have been using since 1924, is derived from the popularity of flotation reagents. It is the selective separation of solid gas from the suspension of water (pulp) into the solid mineral, and is the selective separation process of the gas liquid solid three-phase interface, foam flotation has been called "miraculous invention" in the history of mineral smelting science and technology, and opened a new era of modern flotation methods.

Now, with the progress of industry, our tungsten ore flotation technology is changing with each passing day, but it is still the category of foam flotation. With the flawless beneficiation of chemicals used, flotation of new methods and new concepts are also constantly invented and created, in the accumulation of a large number of technology, China's tungsten flotation field developing, accumulate steadily, industry technology has been in the international leading position. Even some of the western countries, which have been proud of themselves, have turned their back on copy the flotation method of our country.

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Hunan New ShaoTan Tungsten Ore

In November 13, 2014, Xinshao County, Hunan Province, compiled by the 407 team of Hunan Provincial Geological Prospecting Bureau, successfully filed on the Provincial Bureau of land and resources. 

The report shows that the size of the tungsten ore mine in Xinshao County, Hunan Province is a large-scale tungsten mine, proven tungsten resources reserves of 70,400 tons, associated gold, silver, antimony and other metal elements, is expected to mine service life of about 17 years, the total total economic value of about 8 billion yuan. News once broadcast, it led to a warm reaction to the capital market, the listed company's market value increased significantly, because it is the first record of nonferrous metal mineral exploration in Hunan province since 2000, and the reserves are huge. In China, the shortage of tungsten resources is becoming more and more urgent, and the good news is encouraging.

Hunan new ShaoTan tungsten ore image

Tan Xian tungsten ore is located in the Cao Jia village, Xin Shao county, an area of 10.29 square kilometers, located in the Longshan mountain metallogenic belt, tectonic, magmatic activity is strong, excellent mineralization conditions. Of course, behind the dazzling achievement is full of geological prospecting people's hardships. According to 407 team members described in 2010 when the exploration work began, they found Tan Xi tungsten ore area geological situation is complex, fault fracture zone development, the surface is not obvious, the depth of the exploration line is very wide, the thickness is generally larger than 100m, the distribution range is wide, the area is large and the depth is large. Early drilling is used to expose the construction period, the cost is high and the effect is poor. Later 407 brigade summed up the failure experience and sort out the mineralization of the Tan Xi mine, decided to use geophysical methods to detect. The result is remarkable. It is not only fast, effective, but also saves a lot of costs.

For four years, the project team completed the field work from detailed investigation to exploration, completed a total of 2.15 square kilometers of 1: 2000 geological survey, 34 for construction drilling, 13358.05 meters for drilling footage, 4 for aquatic test and 4 for mineral processing. It is determined that the type of deposit is stratabound skarn type tungsten deposit, and 12 mineralization layers are numbered, and the amount of ore body is estimated, a total of 57 laying ore body, ore body thickness of 0.64 meters to 17.56 meters, the average grade of 0.367%, submitted to the amount of 19.16 million tons of tungsten ore, tungsten resources 70,400 tons.

Relative to the gold, Tan Xi tungsten ore seems to have more comprehensive mining value, in 2013, Hunan Province, 304 Geological Survey team in the mine Li Ping village found a new generation of tungsten antimony ore belt. In the future, the development potential of Tan Xi tungsten mine is abysmal.

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Apple May Secretly Develop Power Batteries in China

According to the first financial news, apple is working with a Chinese power battery manufacturer secretly developed automotive power batteries, confirmed that the U.S. auto project is not just software, as well as hardware. Apple may really be making a car.

One is the Silicon Valley global high-tech giant, and the other is a power battery manufacturer in Fujian, China. Apple and the Ningde era of new energy Polytron Technologies Inc (hereinafter referred to as the "Ningde era", also known as "CATL") is a project based on confidentiality agreements. According to sources close to the collaboration, the first financial services are being co operated in the field of batteries.

Amperex Technology Limited (hereinafter referred to as "ATL") is Apple's consumer electronics products, the world's largest battery supplier. The Ningde era was part of the parent company's ATL power battery division, which became independent power battery manufacturers in 2011. Ningde times founder Ceng Yuqun, President Huang Shilin and many other start-up shareholders have been ATL executives.

clean energy vehicles image

Apple did not announce any news of the cooperation with the Ningde era, while the Ningde era refused to respond to this. CCID Consulting, new energy director Wu Hui told the first financial reporter said, if Apple and Ningde era cooperate in power battery, it does not rule out the possibility of Apple to continue to build cars, one of the core components of automatic driving electric vehicles is the power battery.

At present, Panasonic battery has become the market leader in automotive power batteries, in 2017, Dalian Matsushita automotive power battery project officially put into operation in April 27th, with an annual capacity of 200 thousand power lithium-ion batteries. If Apple is also making a car, then the potential power battery suppliers are also likely to be in China, and even as Apple's mobile phone, most of the production lines are likely to be in China.

The main reason is that China's manufacturing industry under the guidance of the national "Made in China 2025" strategy. China not only has a good scientific research and investment environment, but also cultivate a large number of outstanding skilled workers. And in the production of materials, China's rich mineral resources, iron, copper, tungsten, molybdenum, aluminum and other important materials. And after years of development, steel, tungsten, molybdenum, copper and alloy smelting industry has been in the world advanced level.

In addition, some experts believe that clean energy vehicles will replace the existing fuel vehicles in the next ten years, but due to the problem of thermal power pollution, electricity is still not ideal for clean energy, perhaps solar energy is the cleanest energy source. In recent years, with the development of nano technology and thin film technology, people have found a variety of can be used for solar cell manufacturing materials, such as monocrystalline silicon, monocrystalline tungsten, monocrystalline molybdenum, zirconium tungstate film, tungsten selenide film, these are very valuable solar power materials.

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