2019年3月12日星期二

Corrosion Inhibition of Sodium Tungstate Inhibitor On Carbon Steel

In recent years, in order to save fresh water resources and reduce the cost, some of the coastal chemical, metallurgy, electric power and petrochemical enterprises began to use seawater as a type of industrial circulating cooling water.

seawater cooling system image

Although this practice has many advantages, in the sea cl- content is high, easy to produce metal corrosion, metal corrosion is one of the most important destructive factors, which can cause corrosion and perforation of equipment and pipes, cause serious corrosion, and cause enormous economic losses and social harm.

In order to reduce the probability of metal corrosion, it is a simple and effective anti-corrosion method to add inhibitors to circulating cooling water. Only common chromate, nitrite, phosphate and other corrosive agents are toxic preparations, excessive use is tantamount to quenching thirst with poison, research and development of low toxicity, non-toxic and effective corrosion inhibitors have a greater significance.

Sodium tungstate inhibitor is one of inorganic inhibitors. Because of its low toxicity, no harm to environment, human body and crops, and no microorganism breeding, it is also used as metal corrosion inhibitor, however, sodium tungstate is good, but the price is not approachable. Moreover, various industrial applications show that the single use of sodium tungstate inhibitors is not only of large amount, but also of limited effect. Therefore, more scholars have developed many kinds of sodium tungstate composite inhibitors based on sodium tungstate.

Some scholars combine sodium tungstate, twelve sodium benzene sulfonate and triethanolamine, three yuan compound release agent of sodium tungstate was prepared, and a comparative test of carbon steel was carried out in simulated seawater environment, the results show that the surface corrosion of carbon steel sheet without corrosion inhibitor is serious and uneven; The corrosion resistant carbon steel sheet with three yuan of sodium tungstate is intact, the surface is clear and there is no trace of corrosion, and the inhibition efficiency reaches 75%, it is also emphasized that the sodium tungstate three yuan corrosion inhibitor has the advantages of less dosage, low cost and high corrosion inhibition rate, and can meet the requirements of industrial universal use.

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Sodium Tungstate Compound Corrosion Inhibitor Copper Protection

Sodium tungstate is an inorganic inhibitor. It has many advantages, such as low toxicity, no harm to environment, human body and crops, and no microorganism breeding.

submarine fiber image

However, sodium tungstate has its unavoidable defects. First of all, the effect of single sodium tungstate is limited, and it needs to be used to enhance the effect, at the same time, sodium tungstate is more expensive and impractical to use. Therefore, more enterprises are using sodium tungstate and cheaper chemicals to make sodium tungstate composite corrosion inhibitor to realize the function of protecting metal.

Polyaspartic acid (PASP) is a newly found environmental friendly water treatment agent. It has excellent scale inhibition, dispersion and good biodegradability, after polyaspartic acid used efficiently, stably microorganisms, fungi degradation of the final product harmless to the environment, is a very desirable water treating agent.

What is the effect of combining sodium tungstate with polyaspartic acid? Some scholars have combined these two methods to study the corrosion inhibition of copper in simulated seawater environment. In marine environment, when the total concentration of inhibitor of 7mg/L, PASP and Na2WO4 complex for copper have inhibition effect, but the effect is weak, however, synergistic effect between sodium tungstate and polyaspartic acid resulted in a good effect on corrosion inhibition, this is because of the weak oxidation of sodium tungstate react with copper, but the film formed by sodium tungstate has defects and pores, the polyaspartic acid, which is just salt with two valence copper ion or cuprous ion in the solution, plays a role in filling pores and repairing defects.

The research shows that the compound inhibitor of sodium tungstate and polyaspartic acid has good corrosion protection effect on copper. It not only improves the efficiency, but also reduces the cost, and has a very broad prospects for promotion.

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Photocatalytic Degradation of Methylene Blue by Sodium Tungstate

Methylene blue is an aromatic heterocyclic compound, used as a chemical indicator, dye, biological dye and drug use, mostly dyes, the methylene blue aqueous solution is blue in an oxidizing environment.

methylene blue wastewater treatment plant image

In industrial applications, methylene blue also produces wastewater which is difficult to degrade. The methylene blue wastewater discharged into rivers, lakes and seas is also a toxic substance.

Then, how to degrade methylene blue wastewater? In theory, the key and core of difficult wastewater treatment technology is the removal of refractory and insoluble matter in wastewater, that is, how to convert non biodegradable soluble chemicals into biochemical substances. In recent years, with the development of photocatalytic technology, more and more photocatalysts have been developed. Sodium tungstate is one of the most widely used photocatalysts, so is sodium tungstate also suitable for the degradation of methylene blue wastewater?

Sodium tungstate is an excellent photocatalyst. Because of its low toxicity, friendly environment and stable photocatalytic properties, sodium tungstate is widely used. Some scholars used sodium tungstate as the main catalyst of the photocatalyst, and the total amount of 30% hydrogen peroxide H2O2 was used to degrade methylene blue, the results showed that the decolorization rate of methylene blue wastewater was 99.8% and almost completely degraded by the combination of sodium tungstate and hydrogen peroxide at the temperature of 60 °C with the ratio of 7:3, the effect of hydrogen peroxide is 30% higher than that of hydrogen peroxide alone, which shows that sodium tungstate has very good photocatalytic activity for methylene blue.

With the rapid development of industry in China, the cost of environmental protection is higher and higher. It is always troublesome to treat wastewater with high difficulty, but with the increasing popularity of the concept of photocatalysis, photocatalyst tungstate slowly make it not trouble, sodium tungstate will also get more and more applications, it has great prospects.

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How Sodium Tungstate Improves The Nannochloropsis Oculata Diesel Production

Nannochloropsis oculata belongs to the category of the true focus algae class, is considered to be an ideal raw material for most potential, to achieve sustainable supply of biodiesel refining.

nannochloropsis image

At present there are about 6 species have been set, namely Cadiz Nannochloropsis oculata, particles of Nannochloropsis oculata and lakes Nannochloropsis oculata, marine Nannochloropsis oculata, focus of Nannochloropsis oculata and saline Nannochloropsis oculata.

The research showed that the key of Nannochloropsis oculata oil is the fatty acid composition, which is closely associated with environmental conditions, nitrogen is a large number of elements needed for microalgae growth, and different nitrogen sources and concentrations have significant effects on the composition of microalgae fatty acids.

Nitrate nitrogen is the most important form of nitrogen in sea water. As the nitrogen fertilizer used in surface plants, nitrate reductase is an important regulating enzyme and a speed limiting enzyme in the process of nitrogen metabolism, it is an important factor affecting plant photosynthesis metabolism. Sodium tungstate Na2WO4 can reduce the activity of nitrate reductase, which is an inhibitor of nitrate reductase.

Why should sodium tungstate be used as an inhibitor of nitrate reductase? As a matter of fact, the main purpose of cultivating microalgae is to produce biodiesel, studies have shown that most of the algae in the nutritional stress conditions can accumulate higher levels of fat, oil is equally consumed in the process of growth, on the one hand, the amount of treatment is increased, on the other hand, the difficulty of making biodiesel is also increased, but correspondingly, the lack of nitrogen absorption can cause malnutrition and decrease the growth rate of algae. Therefore, it is necessary to find a balance between nitrogen metabolism, sodium tungstate is the key factor to achieve the balance of metabolism.

Industrial practice has shown that sodium tungstate is used as a regulator, sodium tungstate replaces the molybdenum reductase coenzyme factor in nitrate in the metabolic process (promoting the absorption of the active factor), thereby controlling or reducing the activity of nitrate reductase, and ultimately inhibiting the absorption of nitrate nitrogen by plants, after the control of nitrogen absorption, the growth rate of microalgae slowed down, but the accumulation of medium and short chain fatty acids began to accelerate.

Sodium tungstate is an environmental regulator, low toxicity, basically do not have to worry about environmental pollution, and less consumption can achieve the effect of nitrogen limit, greatly reduces the production cost of microalgae biodiesel. Nannochloropsis oculata production assistant agent has a great prospect of industry.

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2019年1月31日星期四

【Know Tungsten】What Is Tungstic Acid?

Tungstic acid is the generic term of all kinds of hydrates of tungsten oxide (WO3), polymer compound which formed by the combination of tungsten trioxide WO3 and then united with water at different ratios and formations.


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How to Increase The Fluorescence Yield of Lead Tungstate

Lead tungstate crystals have become a new generation of scintillating materials due to the high density, short radiation length and Moliere radius fast flicker decay time, strong anti-radiation damage ability, air deliquescence, chemical stability and low price.

In recent years, lead tungstate crystals have also attracted attention in the field of nuclear medical equipment applications, especially in the positron emission tomography (PET) and other nuclear medicine imaging has become a hot research at home and abroad. However, lead tungstate scintillation crystals have many advantages, but lower fluorescence yields limit the use of lead tungstate crystals in high energy applications. Therefore, to improve the fluorescence yield of lead tungstate, we can better expand its field of application.

lead tungstate crystals image

At present, there are commonly used ways to improve the low light yield of lead tungstate crystals: (1) Improve the growth conditions, improve the purity of raw materials and adjust the ratio of raw materials to remove as much as possible on the luminous properties of impurities; (2) Doping the ions in the lead tungstate matrix, and the new luminescent center is introduced by compensating the defects so that the doping ions emit light in the blue band; (3) By optimizing and establishing a reasonable annealing process to compensate for oxygen vacancies and reduce defects.

The blue luminescence of lead tungstate crystals lies near 420 nm, in order to improve the low light yield of lead tungstate crystals, it is necessary to have high transmittance in the range of the emission wavelength to reduce the self absorption of the crystal in this band. By optimizing the annealing conditions can compensate for oxygen vacancies, reduce defects, improve the lead tungstate crystal transmittance, thereby increasing the low light yield of the crystal. Therefore, it is important to explore the optimum annealing conditions to improve the low light yield of lead tungstate crystals.

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Sodium Tungstate Promotes Nitrogen Fertilizer Plants Absorption Tips

Nitrate nitrogen refers to the nitrate fertilizer contained in nitrate, which is mainly used in fruit trees. It can stop the development and deformity of fruit.

It is one of the main fertilizers for crop growth and prolonging crop growth and harvesting period,it plays a crucial role in the growth of crops. However, the use of nitrate nitrogen is a double-edged sword, on the one hand, nitrogen fertilizer can improve the yield of crops, on the other hand, the excessive use of nitrogen fertilizer will also pollute the rivers and lakes, soil and underground water, resulting in major rivers appear eutrophication, algal growth, leading to ecological extinction. How can you find a balance between efficiency and the environment? Scientists have been trying to find the answer. Some scholars think of sodium tungstate.

Sodium tungstate has been widely used because of its low toxicity, no harm to environment, human body and crops, and no breeding of microorganisms. Some scholars have added a small amount of tungstate to the nitrate nitrogen in citrus cultivation, but a small change has resulted in unexpected returns.

citrus trees image

Studies have shown that in citrus cultivation, the addition of a small amount of tungstate can promote the plant to better absorb nitrate nitrogen fertilizer useful elements, this is because the nitrate reductase (NR) is the key enzyme in the process of nitrate nitrogen action and rate limiting enzyme, this is because the nitrate reductase (NR) is a key enzyme in the process of nitrate nitrogen action and rate limiting enzyme, its activity reflects the ability of plants to restore and transform nitrate nitrogen, and is closely related to the ability of plants to absorb and accumulate nitrate nitrogen, the enzyme is a water-soluble molybdenum protein, with the same poly-subunit protein.

Each subunit contains three auxiliary: Flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), cytochrome (Cytc), and molybdenum cofactor (MoCo), each auxiliary group is a redox process in which molybdenum atoms (Mo) act as an important component of the enzyme and participate in the reduction of nitrate nitrogen to ammonium. The properties of tungsten atom (W) in sodium tungstate (Na2WO4) are similar to that of molybdenum atoms, which can directly replace molybdenum in the nitrate reductase complex, in short, sodium tungstate can play a role in inhibiting reductase activity, so that the plant water to absorb nutrients, and the nutrients just right to pass on the fruit, rather than overeating caused by loss of nitrogen fertilizer to the soil, this is also the secret of citrus fruit being more sweet and full catalyzed by sodium tungstate.

To sum up, adding appropriate amount of sodium tungstate can promote the better absorption of nitrogen fertilizer plants, so as to enhance the efficiency of nitrate use, while improving crop quality while reducing the amount of nitrogen fertilizer, in order to achieve efficiency and environmental balance.

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