Tungsten Oxide Nanoparticle as Catalyst for Malonic Acid Ester Synthesis via Ozonolysis
Ozonolysis is of great interest to synthetic organic chemistry because it is one of the most efficient tools for oxidatively cleaving carbon-carbon double bonds. Ozonolysis is generally used to prepare biologically active molecules. Therefore, the reactions between ozone and organic compounds continue to be a subject of significant interest from mechanistic, synthetic, and environmental perspectives. The importance of O3 reactions with alkenes in the troposphere and solution has led to many experimental and theoretical studies of their kinetics and mechanism.
Scientists addresses tungsten oxide nanoparticle syntheses for use as a catalyst in the novel one-step synthesis of malonic acid ester. Malonic acid ester is directly synthesized and esterified via the ozonolysis of palm olein (palm oil fraction), which comprises 10% linoleic acid as an unsaturated fatty acid. The main advantages of using tungsten oxide nanoparticles as the catalyst for this esterification are to shorten the reaction time. Using tungsten oxide nanoparticles also has minor advantages such as simple synthetic operation, excellent yields, and recyclability. The structure and size of the tungsten oxide nanoparticles were investigated via field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRD). The malonic acid ester was spectroscopically characterized via gas chromatography mass spectroscopy (GC-MS).
The study used a new approach to synthesize malonic acid ester via the direct ozonolysis of palm olein, where the fine bubbles of ozone played an active role to cleave the double bonds. This method was used for the first time with a tungsten trioxide catalyst for the esterification of malonic acid and had the advantages of synthetic simplicity, an excellent 10% yield, short 2 h reaction time, and recyclability. Malonic acid ester was characterized using mass spectroscopy. The prepared nanoparticles have a spherical shape and diameter of 24 nm have been investigated by the FESEM & XRD, respectively.
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