Due to the intensification of the global greenhouse effect, extreme climate changes have been caused, resulting in a significant reduction in the area of arable land and making crops difficult to grow. Greenhouse cultivation can reduce the disasters caused by the climate to agricultural production, and maintain the stable production of crops, and solve the famine problems that may be faced in the future.
It is a gradual trend in crop planting methods. Due to the increasingly serious problem of oil shortage and global warming, the promotion of energy conservation and reduction of carbon dioxide emissions have become the goals of various governments. Among them, the promotion of energy-saving green buildings is a key project, so energy-saving greenhouses that can reduce energy use have also become a new development trend.
The greenhouse shell shoulders the important functions of sheltering wind, rain, light regulation, heat insulation or heat preservation. The light-transmitting covering material is the main structural component that affects the exchange of light, heat and air inside and outside the greenhouse. The temperature in the greenhouse rises to very high in summer, which is not conducive to plant growth and personnel work. Artificial cooling measures also waste energy and increase cultivation costs. Although the high-performance greenhouse light-transmitting covering material has the opportunity to isolate the heat radiation part of the sun, and maintain high light transmission, solve the problem of indoor overheating. However, the currently commercially available greenhouse light-transmitting covering materials are insufficiently insulated, and there is still much room for improvement.
The wavelength of solar thermal energy reaching the surface of the earth is mainly at 280~3000nm. Among them, 280~380nm is ultraviolet light, 380~780nm is visible light, and 780~3000nm is infrared light. For plants, light in the 400-700nm wavelength range is required for photosynthesis, especially the strongest absorption band of chlorophyll is in the blue-violet light 400-480nm and red-orange light region 600-680nm, which has a great impact on plant growth. The response of plants to the length of day and night is the photoperiod. Red light and far-red light have a significant impact on the photoperiod effect. The red light of 600~700nm will inhibit the elongation of the stem and the divergence of the plant, and sometimes cause the leaves to be small and thick, and affect the flowering of the plant. The far-red light of 700~780nm will promote the elongation of stems and affect the flowering of plants. Ultraviolet light 280~380nm generally has an adverse effect on plants, but UVB at 280~315nm has minimal impact on morphology and physiological processes. The major impact is UVA at 315~380nm, which will affect the photoperiod effect and prevent stem extension. Long, plants are easy to burn, stimulate the germination of fungal spores, pathogens and viruses are also easy to invade, but it can make the flowers or fruits of plants brighter.
Optical performance requirements for greenhouse films
1. High light transmittance and stable
2. High light scattering
3. High infrared light barrier
4. Proper UV light barrier properties
The thermal insulation dispersion prepared by ammonium metatungstate and acrylic glue are used to make a nano organic-inorganic hybrid coating, and then this coating is coated on the surface of the polyester film to form a high-performance thermal insulating agricultural membrane. This transparent nanoparticle coating film can provide high see-through rate while blocking infrared rays, thus achieving high light transmission and high heat insulation effects. The optical properties of the thermal insulation film are related to the dispersibility of the thermal insulation powder in the resin. Generally speaking, the overall light transmittance of the heat insulation film can be maintained at 60~80%, and the infrared light blocking rate can reach 78~98%. Compared with the optical performance of the top-level thermal insulation films on the market, the optical performance of each other is not much different. Therefore, the use of nano-coating methods can produce products comparable to the top-level commercially available thermal insulation film, which has the advantages of simple manufacturing process and low cost. Therefore, greenhouse films will have great market demand in the future to maintain stable production of crops.